TCS on Sale of Goods

Tax Collected at source (TCS) is Income Tax which is required to be collected by the seller (Collector) from the Buyer along with the Price of Goods and applicable taxes. Provisions relating to TCS has been enumerated in section 206C of the Income Tax Act, 1961.

The Finance Act, 2020 has made an amendment by insertion of sub-section (1H) in section 206C of the Income Tax Act, 1961 (hereinafter referred to as “the Act”) which is effective from 01.10.2020. As a result of the said amendment, a seller who receives any amount as consideration for the sale of any goods of the value or aggregate of such value exceeding Rs. 50 Lakh in any previous year shall at the time of receipt of such amount collect from the buyer, a sum equal to 0.10% (which is reduced to 0.075% as a covid relief  till 31st March 2020) of the sale consideration exceeding fifty lakhs as income tax.

Section 206C of the Act provides for the collection of tax at source (TCS) on business of trading in alcohol, liquor, forest produce, scrap etc. Sub-section (1) of the said section, inter-alia, provides that every person, being a seller shall, at the time of debiting of the amount payable by the buyer to the account of the buyer or at the time of receipt of such amount from the said buyer in cash or by the issue of a cheque or draft or by any other mode, whichever is earlier, collect from the buyer of certain goods a sum equal to a specified percentage, of such amount as income-tax.

Please visit by Advocate V. P. Gupta for detailed explanation on TCS u/s 206C and know more about it.

For Petrol-pumps:

With effect from 01st October 2020 all oil companies have started to charge TCS to all the petrol-pump dealers and correspondingly all dealers have to charge TCS of 0.1% (0.075% till 31st March, 2021 as covid relief) on sale of goods subject to amount received against the sales consideration of GOODS (not services) exceeding 50 lacs subject to dealers aggregate turnover is above 10 crores (which normally always exceeds in case of petrolpumps). The TCS, so Charged and collected from customer have to be paid by 7th of the next month….

Since, Quicksoft is catering to petrol-pumps, we have covered the TCS compliance seamlessly and are pleased to announce that as always we have updated the Quicksoft ArtRM software swiftly for petrol-pumps for compliance of new TCS provisions u/s. 206C(1H) for a petroleum retail outlets.

All you need to do is download the update:

1. All existing users can just download the updated version of software from Help->Whats New->MyFav button and select option… to download the latest GST version available. New customers can contact to purchase/download

2. Start the Software and go to Administration->Configuration screen and Enable/Disable TCS system, which by default is enabled automatically for you.

Configure ArtRM for TCS

Configure ArtRM for TCS

The ArtRM is pre-configured to make TCS applicable for you as almost all petrol-pumps are liable to pay and collect TCS for eligible customers and suppliers. The software also automatically creates all required ledgers (TCS PAID, TCS CHARGED..) for you. If you click on < ? > button then it gives you explanation of TCS and general information for users. You just need to change 0.075% to 1% in the next financial year i.e. on 1st April, 2021 so as to auto calculate TCS @0.1%., which means the software is not hard-coding any Tax Rates and all rules are auto configured logically and as chosen by end user.

Round Off TCS Amount: Please tick mark or knock off this option as the case may be, since some OMC’s round off the TCS Amount also along with additional rounding off for the final bill amount.

3. Just Edit the Customers for whom you wish to Charge TCS in customer master.

Mark if TCS is applicable to Selected Customer

Mark if TCS is applicable to Selected Customer

Also make sure to provide the PAN number for the customer so as to apply TCS rate @0.075% or as configured in the system. The software also alerts you if the PAN number is not provided for the selected customer as for Non PAN card holder the rate of TCS is @1%. Also please note, when mouse is moved to Is TCS Applicable to Customer CheckBox then it will display the total receipt for the customer till date in the tooltip as shown in the image above.


Similarly you just have to mark the supplier for eligibility to charge TCS. By default all the suppliers are marked as eligible to charge TCS because at petrol-pumps the major supplier is oil companies as Fuel and Oil are always supplied by Oil Marketing Companies (OMC). If your supplier/vendor is not OMC and you are buying some accessory then you have to mark the supplier as non eligible  (as shown in the image above) to charge TCS if their turnover is less than 10 crores or your purchase bill will not tally with their invoice.

*Thats all you need to do to apply TCS in Purchase/Sales Bill.*

To See the Effect of above configuration and application of TCS in action, just start Software and goto Stock-In/Purchase/Challan Entry form, please see the TCS Rate and Amount as shown in the screen below.  When you select the Product and apply taxes (VAT/GST) and cess and you will find TCS automatically applied for Goods as seen in image below. Please note that if the Challan/Bill Date is prior to 01st October 2020 then No TCS will be Charged. Also TCS will not be charged for Service Items like LFR/SSLF (for LFR, separate bill is issued by some oil companies) as software automatically takes care of Service Items where TCS is not applicable. The TCS will also not be charged on Oil and Accessory items, in case the your vendor is not having aggregate turnover above 10 crore and you have marked the vendor/supplier and not eligible to charge TCS….

TCS on Purchase of Fuel

TCS on Purchase of Fuel

Similarly, TCS is automatically charged in Sales Invoice to those customers, to whom you have marked as TCS Applicable, which you can see while generating Invoice on the Invoice Generation form.

Also please note that the effect to Ledger for TCS PAID and TCD CHARGED is automatically posted to the tune of TCS paid to supplier and collected from customer as shown in the images below:

TCS paid to Supplier.

TCS paid to Supplier.

TCS Charged to Customer in Invoice.

TCS Charged to Customer in Invoice.

FAQ : Frequently Asked Questions

Implementing the provision and complying with the requirement of TCS is going to raise many issues. Same are being stated hereunder alongwith with possible view to be taken: –

Sl. No.


Remarks / Possible view

1. Whether TCS is to be collected in the invoice to be raised or at the time of receipt of sale consideration. Though the section uses the wordings receipt of consideration for sale of any goods, it will be practically difficult to raise demand against the buyer subsequently, if not raised in the invoice and collect TCS from buyer and make payment to the government. Therefore, TCS should be charged in the invoice to be raised for sale of goods.
2. Whether TCS is to be paid within the prescribed time with reference to invoice for sale or same is to be paid with reference to receipt of sale consideration against the invoice. In case, practice of making payment on the basis of receipt of sale consideration is adopted, it will be difficult to match amount of receipt and  TCS with invoice value in the cases where part payments are received against the invoice or in the cases of running account where lump sum payments are received from time to time. Hence, payment of TCS should be made with reference to invoice for sale consideration.
3. Whether TCS is to be collected on total sale consideration or only on the amount in excess of Rs.50 lacs. As per the language of the section TCS is to be collected and deposited only on the amount of sale consideration exceeding Rs.50 lacs and TCS is not to be collected and deposited upto sale consideration of Rs.50 lacs.
4. Whether sale for the full current financial year (2020-21) is to be considered or only the sales made after 01.10.2020 are to be considered. Sale consideration for the full financial year is to be considered for deciding whether Buyer is covered for TCS or not. TCS, however, is to be collected and paid only on the sales made after 01.10.2020 to the extent same are in excess of Rs.50 lacs.
5. In order to decide liability of the seller to collect TCS qualifying turnover of Rs.10 crores is to be considered for current year or of the previous year. As per the wordings of the section seller is liable to collect and deposit TCS during a financial year only if, his gross receipt or turnover of preceding financial year was in excess of Rs.10 crores. In other words, in case, sales / turnover of seller in the preceding year was less than Rs.10 crores he will not be liable to collect TCS in following year.
6. Whether TCS under sub-section (1H) is to be collected and deposited in addition to TCS to be collected and deposited as per other provisions of section 206C of the Act. In case TCS is to be collected and deposited under any other provision of section 206C, TCS is not to be collected and deposited in terms of sub-section (1H) of section 206C.
7. Whether TCS is to be collected on value of goods where the seller is using the goods in executing a contract and buyer / contractee is liable to deduct TDS on total contract value, including cost of material. Section provides that TCS is not to be collected where buyer is liable to deduct TDS and has deducted TDS on value of goods. Hence, in this case TCS is not to be collected.
8. Whether TCS is to be collected on value of goods in a case where contract of sale of goods is independent of providing services by the Seller to Buyer and buyer is liable to deduct TDS on value of services only. Since in this case TDS is not to be deducted on value of goods, Seller will be liable to collect TCS on value of goods.
9. Whether sales made to public sector companies which are substantially or wholly owned by the central government or state government, are subject to TCS. As per the section exemption has been granted only in respect of sales made to central government or state government. Companies owned wholly or substantially by the government are not exempt. Therefore, TCS is to be collected in such cases.
10. Whether TCS is to be collected on advance against sale received from the buyer. Since, advance payment cannot be said to be consideration received against the sale, TCS need not be collected and deposited at the stage of receipt of advance payment. TCS will be charged in the invoice and is to deposited within the prescribed time with reference to date of invoice.
11. In case of multi-units company sales are made from different units and there is no centralized system to determine total amount of sales by the company to a particular buyer, is it possible to apply limit of Rs.50 lacs provided in the section separately for each of the unit / division separately. As per the section in case a seller is making sales to a buyer exceeding Rs.50 lacs, it is liable to collect and deposit TCS.  Therefore, such companies have to develop their system to determine total sale to a particular buyer from all the units. In case for any reason it is not possible for the seller to develop any such system it may be advisable to obtain a certificate from major buyers that their total purchases from all the units / divisions of the company are within the limit of Rs.50 lacs and in the absence of such confirmation TCS may be collected and deposited.
12. Whether in case of a individual person having multiple proprietorship concerns sales made to all the concerns have to be clubbed for the purpose of determining the limit of Rs.50 lacs or each proprietorship concern can be considered separately, though PAN will be same. Since, the person is the same and having one single PAN, sales made to all his proprietorship concerns have to be clubbed together for the purpose of determining the liability for collection and deposit of TCS. It is understood that accounting systems, such as SAP, being used by the companies are having control with name of concerns and not on the basis of PAN and therefore, it will be difficult to aggregate sales against one PAN, if names of concerns are different. It is a practical problem to be solved by modifying control in the program.
13. Whether TCS is also to be collected on the amount of GST included in the invoice. GST will also be part of sale consideration and therefore, TCS is to be collected on total amount of invoice including GST.
14. Whether transportation charges to be recovered from buyer through the invoice raised for sale of goods will be subject to TCS. Since, transportation charge, as per the arrangement between the buyer and seller are payable by the buyer in addition to sale consideration, same cannot be part of sale consideration and, therefore, same can be excluded. However, since the element of TCS will be very small with reference to transportation charges, in order to avoid any accounting adjustment etc. TCS may be collected and deposited on total value of the invoice.
15 Whether export of goods is to be made by the seller himself or it can be through any other buyer being export house or a person actually exporting the goods, for being out of the scope of TCS. The section exempts from liability for collection of TCS “goods being exported out of India”. It does not specifically require that export should be by the seller himself. Therefore, TCS is not to be collected in case buyer provides a certificate with necessary evidence to the effect that goods are being exported out of India.
16. Whether goods imported in India will be exempt from TCS even in a case where initial importer sell the goods to any other person on high sea sale basis. As per the section buyer excludes “a person importing goods into India”. A person to whom sale has been made on high sea sale basis will, in fact be getting the goods cleared from custom and accordingly, he will attain the status of person importing the goods into India.  Therefore, no TCS will be chargeable in respect of high sea sale made by the original importer.


Dashboard Added.

Updated on 11/11/2018.


Dashboard button introduced and nicely placed on on Tips page for quick overview of petrol-pump.

The Dashboard is useful to give quick view of companies standing and monitor frequently referred items organized for quick and easy access. Any organisation/petrol-pump is interested to know where their money is blocked be it in Outstanding, Stock and Fund utilization etc., or sales increases or decreased and Dashboard is very handy to get the same as quick reference.

Dashboard Button

If Tips page is not visible just Click F1 on keyboard to open the Tips Page. When you first time click on Dashboard button it will automatically configure the frequently accessed information as shown below:

Dashboard Summary View

You can select the items you wish to appear on dashboard by clicking on the Configure Tab on the above screen. Also please note the Excel button, it will allow you to export all the data in all the box/frame in different sheet on a new workbook created on you desktop. When you click on Configure tab it will show the available items to choose from in all the six boxes/frames above as per your wish as explained in below given screen.

Dashboard Configuration

The Configure tab allows you to select the Item you wish to appear in each frame, after making the appropriate selection just click on Refresh Dashboard to apply the changes to respective box/frame on dashboard. Also please note the Help/Description on each item for which the data will be fetched is explained in the textbox window on configure tab.

Also in the updated version, please find new module to analyse the customer vehicle-wise lifting to be accessed from Reports->Sales->Customer Details (CRM)->Vehicle Lifting Tab. Just select the product, appropriate period and desired quantity lifted by customer in their vehicle click on process button to get the results as shown below:

Vehicle Analysis


Few Updates and Optimization

Auto Generate Nozzle Wizard: When you first install the software and start creating items, tanks… Now, you can automatically create all the nozzles and tanks through the <Auto Generate> Wizard button in Master->Sales->Pump Nozzle Master. It will ask you How many Tanks and Nozzles for each tank installed for every fuel items. You must have the reading for all the nozzles handy before clicking on this button as it will ask you to enter the meter start to create all the nozzles dynamically, this can save lot of time as compared to manually entering each nozzle and selecting fuel type and tank etc.,

Batch Process: Now you can <Re-generate and Re-Post Invoice> to fix descripancy of posting for GST, AOC or Round off as the case may be.. Also Ledger posting is done if not posted correctly….

<GST/VAT Posting for Cash/Oth Sale> to fix and Post OUTPUT GST effect in the ledger the Cash Sale and other sale for OUTPUT CGST and OUTPUT SGST which was not auto posted earlier. This will work only if “Auto Post Input/Output GST?VAT Entries” in configured to be Ticked (√) in Configuration Screen->Rules Tab. However it was posting correctly for Credit Sale.

<GST/VAT Ledger Posting for Purchase> provided to fix the INPUT CGST/SGST/IGST effect in the Ledger for the purchase if the Tax Item selected during the purchase. Earlier it was calculating but only showed in the purchase register. Now you can Re-post freely without having to Edit the Entries to correct the effect depending on the Tax Type as VAT/GST or exempted as the case may be.

Meter Reading: Now you can also import the meter reading from Excel file for the day/shift and also export the data for the shift/day so entered manually or as stored for previous date by editing the shift and just click on <Export to excel> button… To be able to import data from excel the data in the sheet has to be as per the column specified by the software. To know the column specification you can export data for any date /shift and just Re-Enter the Opening and Closing Meter value in the sheet so exported.  Basically 1st Column should be the Nozzle name as created in the nozzle master and 2nd and 3rd column is Meter Start and Meter Close respectively.

25th May, 2018: Miscellaneous Updates to Optimize the Process
Batch Process Accounts is now optimized to finish the batch processing job in 1/10 the time it was taking earlier or it now completes the task 10 times faster

Auto Complete now done for most combo box selection so you don’t have to key in entire description/account in the combo box control…

Now you can View/Edit data for Every Transaction for the specified month instead of entire year earlier. Month Filter is provided in all the View Tabs for all the modules. However, you can click on <All> option to view transactions for entire year.

Rate register can now be Exported and printed in Tabular format for fuel items. Just click on <Export> button at the bottom of the form on the Fuel Item Pricing (Change Rate) form. Month filter is provided to export Rate Register only for the specified month..

Auto Cash Sale:  now validates if your slip sales (cash/credit/credit card/petro card) is more than Meter sales and will not allow to save if slip sale is more than meter sale as it can lead to wrong cash balance… Also now you can find the Item-wise sale for each shift v/s the Item-wise Meter Sale and easily find discrepancy from Reports->Sales->Sales Analysis->Meter Reading->Meter vs Slip (Item) Tab for the selected month in Meter Reading Grid on the left.

08 June 2018:
Transfer Slip(s) from One Customer to Another (Customer A to Customer B):
Due to great public demand and new module is introduced to take care of transferring all the Indents/Slips from one account/customer to another account/customer. This option can be invoked by clicking on Sales Menu->Slip Entry -> Bulk Update menu item. It will first authenticate by asking user to enter Administrators Username and Password, because the bulk update if left open can cause huge impact so only the authorized person can access this utility.

The module allows to select the source customer “Customer A” from where the slips are to be moved/transferred to target customer “Customer B”  and then select the period for which the slips to be marked for transfer as shown in the Image below.  Here the slips are intended to be moved from A/c#212 to A/c#3.

Bulk Transfer Slips.jpg

Please note that there is Month filter provided so as to select the slips/indents for the selected month, however, you can also select All for the month to ignore the month filter. You can select all the slips under the selected period/range or only mark selected slips for which you wish to do transfer.

To ensure that the above transfer of slips is safe and without any discrepancy or error we have made it mandatory that only those slips can be transferred for which invoice has not been generated. If you wish to transfer the slips for the Invoice already generated then you don’t have any other option but to delete the said invoice first. Secondly, we have to make sure that the Slips having Vehicle reference being transferred does not exist for the same customer in slips other date range than specified. If you accidentally move the slips with vehicle numbers/reference to another customer and other slips not moved/transferred can cause undefined reference error for vehicles and hence not permissible to transfer slips using MOVE method, other way is transfer slips by COPYing the vehicle numbers/reference to “customer B” but this will duplicate the vehicle numbers in the slips being transferred to “Customer A” as well as “Customer B”

10 June 2018
Set Credit Card to Active/Inactive : There are times when you stop/surrender transaction with particular Merchant Bank or Credit Card Machine in such a case you don’t want it to be shown in future credit card sales transaction entry so as to stop accidentally selecting the surrendered card/machine and avoid future editing and so on. So, now you can Activate or Inactivate the particular credit card from Master->Sales->Credit Card Master and click on the Card which you wish to edit flag. click on edit and inactivate/activate as the case may be… Save and check the effect in Sales->Credit Card Sales.

Auto Locking Data Entry

Fuel Station/Gas Station/Petrol-pumps are generally working 24×7 and normally there are shifts under which different people work. In a given situation the business goes on irrespective of owner/employer/manager present at the outlet. This warrants that the software system is highly secured so as to not allow anybody to manipulate the data by editing or deleting and fiddle around unrestricted. Many a times when owner has multiple outlets they would want work of the shift to be completed by the end of the day so that he can get reports by day end, this is possible only if work for the shift is finished immediately / within stipulated time and without any lethargy. Auto Locking forces the users/employees to finish work for the day/shift in stipulated time.

Quicksoft ArtRM-PP (The Art of Retail Management for Petrol-pump) is highly secured system with user based selective module access rights to only add/enter data or optionally allow user to Edit/Delete data if the right for the same is given. But, that is not enough, there are time when you want Edit/Delete right available to user only for the current date/shift and he should not be able to Edit/Delete the already tallied/audited data or it will be difficult to find what went wrong in the past entries.

In fact, with the daily rate change  it is all the more necessary to lock the previous days data entry or the user will enter the next days data in the previous day with new rate or same rate and so on. So, we introduced the Auto Locking System to Automatically lock the data entry for the shift after the specified number of hours as shown in the screen below:

Auto Locking Data Entry

So, if there are two shifts and the First Shift (6.00AM to 6.00PM – the shift timing can be set in the Masters->Employee->Shift Master for each shift) Ends at 6.00PM in the evening, then the system will allow to Add the data in the First Shift only till the 11:59:59PM (as Grace period specified is 6 hours), the moment system date/time exceeds 11:59:59PM it will not allow user to add any entry after that in the first shift. He/she will not be able to Edit/Delete (even if edit/delete right available to user) in the first shift or any data prior to the current date.  The Grace period can be set by administrator as the case may be from 1-24 hours. Please note that it is only restricted only to normal users. However, if Administrator has logged in then Auto Lock will not be applicable to Administrator.

If Administrator decides to lock Adding the data or Editing/Deleting data by mistake by him/her then he/she can Lock Add/Edit/Delete even for Administrator by providing the Date and Click on Lock Radio button in the “Lock Data Entry for Everybody (including Admin)” frame.  The system will not allow to Add/Edit/Delete prior to the date specified below the “Lock Entry Before” caption even for administrator.

In fact, in Configuration Screen->General Tab one can also lock data Add/Edit/Delete for user by turning on Tick for “Lock Slip Add/Edit/Delete after Auto Cash” option. This will be activated once the Auto Cash Entry / Day Close Entry for the day/shift is done. Which means once the day close is done, which means the cash is tallied then there should be no changes made as it can impact the closing cash balance which was tallied by accountant. However, voucher can be entered inspite of auto cash lock provided, but with Auto Lock option shown in above image even voucher entry will be locked.


GST Version

Effective from 1st July, 2017 the new version has been created to take care of GST requirement. The GST (Goods and Services Tax) Law warrants dealer to issue Bill/Receipt for the goods sold above Rs.200/- value clearly mentioning CGST (Central) and SGST (State) component/share of tax depending on the slab under which the item beling sold falls. As per the GST Law every dealer also has to file GSTR-1 and GST3B returns with CGST, SGST and IGST columns as the case may be.

With this there will be no new updates or release in the old version of software. The old version will be discontinued as far as new feature addition is concerned.

Rosneft, BP Entry May Fuel Retail Competition

While PSUs may feel the heat, consumers are likely to benefit from quality service
India’s fuel retailing sector is poised for unprecedented competition with Russia’s Rosneft and Britain’s BP Plc set to operate petrol pumps with global best practices, which can shake up the statedominated sector and give consumers international quality service.

Armed with fat balance sheets and a welcoming government, these aggressive oil biggies can challenge the dominance of state firms, which have 95% share in the business. This will also pose a stiff challenge for Reliance Industries, which also has a presence in fuel retail.

Pump owners and state firms are already talking about how foreign firms can snatch their customers with sleek marketing, branding and international quality services.BP has just received a licence to set up 3,500 pumps, while Rosneft will inherit 2,700 retail outlets following a deal to acquire Essar Oil.

Foreign oil producers, struggling with low oil prices for two years, are targeting large markets such as India. Saudi Aramco, the global giant with $13 trillion worth of reserves, and France’s Total have also shown interest in marketing fuel in in India, the fastest growing major economy and third-largest oil consumer in the world.

Their strong resolve, rich global experience, brand equity and the big pile of cash will range against the incumbents’ local experience, a sturdy network of filling stations and supplies across the country.

“BP and Rosneft can put up a big challenge for the incumbents.If they are willing to spend, they can expect a fast rollout. With the government ready to welcome them with open arms, they shouldn’t face many hurdles in securing supplies or expanding the network,“ said Amresh Kapoor, former executive director at Indian Oil Corporation (IOC).

“Foreign players could introduce many global best practices that would help raise the service level and act as the key differentiator. With a heavy use of technology and innovation, they could win the market,“ said Gaurav Moda, consultant at KPMG.

Pump owners are worried. “Foreign players might just take away our customers. With fresh look, equipment, advanced technologies, higher service level and brand equity , they will certainly have an advantage over us,“ said Nitin Goyal, an office-bearer at All India Petroleum Dealers Association.

State firms are alert. “We are fully geared to compete. New players are welcome. It will increase competition and eventually benefit customers,“ said BSCanth, director marketing at IOC, the country’s largest fuel retailer. Canth said state firms learned their lesson a decade back when Reliance Industries came from behind to grab a big chunk of the market.“Our systems are ready. We have back-end logis tics in place and a huge network in all regions.“ Fore ign players would have to learn the local business nuances to compete with us, he said.

“Most of the challenges will happen on the highways where diesel is the most dominant fuel. He re, the key would be to catch the fle et owners,“ said Moda.

Diesel sales are three times that of petrol. In the current fiscal, die sel sales are up 3% while petrol has risen 10.5%. Diesel price de control in 2014 brought back priva te players such as Essar Oil and Reliance Industries to fuel retai ling they had exited almost a deca de ago after crude spike had reint roduced regulation.

Foreign players would find it hard to obtain land in big cities for pumps but the highways and smaller cities could become their playground.

“How the market share gets divi ded ultimately will depend largely on the rate at which our fuel con sumption grows. If it grows at a faster rate, the state firms will be better able to protect their sales,“ Kapoor said.

Reliance and Essar own about 4,000 of the 56,000 outlets across the country. IOC has a little more than 25,000 outlets while Hindustan Petroleum and Bharat Petroleum together operate about 27,500 outlets. Shell, the only foreign player so far, has less than 100 stations. Shell’s limited presence and an uninspiring second innings by Reliance has given some analysts to conclude that the new entrants may stay slow.


Open Up Oil Marketing

We need to purposefully open-up oil marketing. It makes no sense to ring-fence the retail marketing of oil products solely for the oil companies. It is sub-optimal, monopolistic and goes against the consumer interest. It is not even as per international practice. Abroad, `independent’ oil retailers account for as much as half the retail offtake of petro-goods. We need similar opening-up here.It would boost realisations in the larger retail industry and improve service quality at the oil pumps. We definitely need much more competition in India’s large and growing oil economy.

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